Background and purpose: Kettlebell exercise have become popular because of its ability to simultaneously train aerobic/anaerobic systems, low cost and easy access, and the great potential for physical fitness programs with a focus on public health. However, little is known about its effects on mood status, sleep, and quality of life (QOL) parameters. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of kettlebell training/detraining on the prevention of depressive and anxiety symptoms and QOL and sleep quality. Methods The sample was composed of 17 healthy women (age: 26.0 ± 5.0 years; body mass: 60.9 ± 12.5 kg; height: 164.6 ± 5.5 cm). The study was organized into four consecutive phases: pre-intervention (PRE), intervention (kettlebell training, 12 weeks, three times/week), post-intervention (POST) and detraining (D, four weeks). The questionnaires SF-36 (QOL), Beck (depressive symptoms), State-Anxiety Inventory (acute anxiety symptoms), POMS (mood state) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (sleep quality) were administered at PRE/POST/D phases. Results QOL, anxiety, sleep quality, and mood state exhibited no differences between PRE/POST/D. Levels of depressive symptoms significantly decreased (22.0%, p = 0.003) between PRE and POST phases, and remained low and similar to POST levels after D. Conclusion Twelve weeks of kettlebell training was able to reduce and prevent depressive/anxiety symptoms in healthy women and these results were maintained after short-term detraining. Thus, kettlebell training might be considered an alternative method on the promotion of mental health and prevention of mood disorders and consequently can improve QOL even in health people.