The main aim of this study is to analyze if protein supplement consumption and food patterns vary across three geographical regions and secondly to identify possible factors that increase the likelihood of ingesting protein supplements. A total of 916 responses from gym users of 3 countries (Italy, Turkey and UK) were entered for analysis. Questions were related to supplement consumption (protein and other supplements), food intake and training habits. A descriptive analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and logistic regression were performed. No differences were found across groups regarding: prevalence of protein supplement consumption, typology of other ingested supplement and food intake. No relation was found between level of education (r = .12) or geographical region (r = .16) and protein consumption. The analysis showed that the coach is the main source of suggestion for the intake of protein supplements (52.3%). The logistic regression model highlighted that gym users who exercised more (OR 1.51, p < 0.001) and consumed higher quantities of chicken (OR 1.39, p < 0.001) eggs (OR 1.18, p < 0.001) and canned tuna (OR 1.15, p < 0.05) were more likely to use protein supplements. Geographical area does not seem to influence the supplementation pattern. Time spent exercising and high protein foods are factors associated with protein supplement consumption.
Protein supplement consumption is linked to time spent exercising and high- protein content foods: A multicentric observational study